The walls are insulated from the inside with 12 to 25 cm thick thermal insulation layer, with 3 cm ventilation gap.
Materials for building external walls
Traditional ceramics are hollow blocks and bricks made from clay with the addition of water and sand. From this material products are produced:
solid – have no openings or have openings smaller than 15% of the base,
hollow – the size of holes is 15-60% of base area.
Advantages of traditional ceramics
good vapor permeability,
material considered to be healthy,
Disadvantages of traditional ceramics
can be used only in multi-layer walls,
low thermal insulation.
From traditional ceramics are produced materials such as:
classic solid brick,
mAX hollow brick.
Porous ceramics is a building material made of clay with addition of water and wood flour or sawdust. Thanks to the addition of wood, microscopic pores are created during the firing process, which provide better thermal insulation.
Porous clay has the following advantages
good thermal insulation
resistance to bad weather conditions,
resistance to fire,
quick and easy wall masonry,
Disadvantages of expanded clay
high price of the blocks – from 8 zlotys a piece (for two- and three-layer walls) and 16 zlotys a piece (for single-layer walls),
high water absorption,
greater brittleness in comparison with traditional ceramics.
Cellular concrete is a material made from:
a small amount of cement or anhydrite.
This material is characterized by excellent heat insulation. For building exterior walls, varieties of cellular concrete are used:
Advantages of cellular concrete
high thermal insulation,
easy to process,
rapid wall-building time,
Cellular concrete disadvantages
high price of blocks: from 11 zł/piece (for two- and three-layer walls) and 33 zł/piece (for one-layer walls),
considerable water absorption,
the building must be plastered in the same season in which it is erected,
poor sound insulation,
poor compressive strength.
Silicates are the most ecological material, for the production of which are used:
Advantages of silicate
high sound insulation,
low water absorption,
resistance to fungi and mould,
Disadvantages of silicate blocks
low thermal insulation,
Keramzite concrete is a modern material that is great for building a house. There are two types of expanded concrete: